Periodontal (Gums) treatments

What is Periodontal (Gum) Disease?

Periodontal disease is the number one cause for tooth loss in adults.

Bondi Junction | Gosford | Hornsby | East Maitland

Gum disease, or periodontal disease (from perio “around” and dont “tooth”), is a common condition affecting millions of Americans. Simply stated, periodontal disease is inflammation of the tissues and bones that surround your teeth. If left untreated, periodontal disease can progress and result in the loss of teeth and bone. Periodontal disease is also a contributing factor in other medical conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. Periodontal disease is a “quiet” disease. Frequently, there are no symptoms, and patients are often surprised to learn that extensive damage can occur without them ever feeling pain or discomfort. When periodontal disease affects a dental implant, this is known as peri-implantitis, and requires specialized treatment.

Link between Periodontal Disease and systemic diseases

Periodontal disease is associated with several serious health conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, stroke, osteoporosis, respiratory disease and cancer. It was thought that bacteria was the factor that linked periodontal disease to other disease in the body; however more recent research demonstrates that the link may have to do with inflammation.

Therefore treating inflammation may not only help manage periodontal disease, but may also help manage other chronic inflammatory conditions.

The Stages of Periodontal Disease

Healthy Gums

Healthy Gums are firm, pink and do not bleed easily. There is no recession of the gums, and teeth are held firmly in place with no damage to supporting bone structure.


Gingivitis is the mildest form of gum disease. It causes the gums to become red, swollen and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is caused by the accumulation of bacteria on the teeth and is easily reversible with professional treatment and good oral home care.

Early Periodontitis

If gingivitis is left untreated, it can advance to periodontitis. In the early stage, periodontal disease begins to destroy the bone and tissue that supports the teeth.

Moderate to Severe Periodontitis

Moderate to Severe Periodontitis can lead to more bone and tissue destruction. The most advanced form of this disease includes extensive bone loss. Teeth often become loose and may have to be removed. Even in the moderate to severe stages there is often no discomfort associated with the disease.


A pocket depth of 1-3 mm is healthy, pocket depths of 4 mm or more indicates an infection; pocket depths of 7 mm or more indicates a higher risk for permanent damage and tooth loss.

Causes of Periodontal Disease

The most common causes of periodontal disease are genetics, smoking and accumulated plaque bacteria.

Plaque bacteria

Plaque is a sticky colorless film consisting of bacteria that continually forms on our teeth, and if not removed by brushing and flossing, can form a hard buildup of tartar.

Tartar (calculus)

This hardened plaque lurks below the gum line, and if not removed, accumulates more plaque and causes loss of bone and tissue support around the tooth.

Poor diet

Lack of proper nutrition may cause chronic adverse conditions, including gum disease. A well balanced diet featuring fresh fruits and vegetables can boost nutritional levels.


An estimated 50% of people are predisposed to gum disease. However, proper oral can keep the disease at bay.

Systemic diseases

Certain systemic diseases may contribute to periodontitis, including diabetes, respiratory disease, heart disease, and autoimmune disorders.


Smoking leads to closure of micro blood vessels that transport essential oxygen to tissues so the gum can heal and survive.Therefore if these blood vessels are closed then there is no nutrients or oxygen reaching the tissues. This causes the gum tissue to die and ultimately lead to loss of teeth.

Low quality dentistry

Ill-fitting bridges and crowns may accumulate bacteria beneath their surfaces.

Pregnancy and Puberty

Healthy Gums are firm, pink and do not bleed easily. There is no recession of the gums, and teeth are held firmly in place with no damage to supporting bone structure.


As you probably already know, stress is linked to many serious conditions such as hypertension, cancer, and numerous other health problems. Stress is also a risk factor for periodontal disease.


Some drugs, such as oral contraceptives, anti-depressants, and certain heart medicines, can lead to an increased response to gum disease leading to swelling and bleeding of the gums.

Clenching or Grinding Your Teeth

Clenching or grinding your teeth can put excess force on the supporting tissues of the teeth and could speed up the rate at which these periodontal tissues are destroyed.

Severe Periodontal Disease

Periodontitis causes the gums to separate from the teeth leaving “pockets.” A pocket depth of 7mm or more is indicative of severe gum disease and poses the potential for permanent damage.

The deep pockets trap food and plaque, become irritated and infected, and damage surrounding gum tissue and bone. In the last stages of periodontitis, bone and connective tissue have diminished to the point that they can no longer support a tooth. The tooth will become loose and may need to be extracted.

Warning signs of Gum Disease.

Signs of gum disease include gums that are pulling away from teeth, redness and swelling:

Persistent bad breath.

Gums that are pulling away from the teeth.

A change in your bite (how your teeth fit together).

Teeth that have become loose.

Signs of infection, such as redness, swelling or pus.

Controlling gum disease

As part of your treatment, we offer comprehensive education on preventing gum disease from recurring.

Indications of Oral Pathology or Oral Cancer

Oral pathology pertains to diseases of the mouth. Our doctors provide screening for oral cancer and other signs of disease during your examinations.

The inside of the mouth is normally lined with a special type of skin (mucosa) that is smooth and coral in color, and any changes in this appearance could be a warning sign that a disease is present. The most serious pathology is oral cancer.

The following can be signs at the beginning of a pathologic process or cancerous growth:

Reddish or whitish patches in the mouth

A sore that doesn’t heal and bleeds easily

A lump or thickening on the skin lining the inside of the mouth

Chronic sore throat or hoarseness

Difficulty in chewing or swallowing

These changes can be detected on the lips, cheeks, palate, and gum tissue around the teeth, tongue, face and/or neck.

Diseases of the mouth don’t always produce painful symptoms, and, oddly enough, oral cancer is not usually painful. However, if you have facial and/or oral pain without an obvious cause or reason, you should be examined immediately.

An oral cancer screening is conducted during every cleaning appointment in our office. Remember, your mouth is one of your body’s most important warning systems.

Please do not ignore suspicious lumps or sores!

How to have healthy gums?

You should clean your teeth carefully every day with a soft, small headed toothbrush.

The area where the gum meets the tooth should also be cleaned to ensure the gum tissue and supporting structure remains healthy.

The careful use of dental floss between teeth also assists in removal of plaque.

This will prevent the formation of a gum infection. While it is tempting to avoid cleaning your gums when they are inflamed and bleeding, brushing will help improve the situation.

Professional scaling and cleaning at Dental Lifeline, as one of the gum disease treatment, allows you to keep your smile healthy and disease free.

If you’ve already lost a tooth to gum infection, you may be interested in dental implants the permanent tooth replacement option.


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